mi.lib

This ongoing work is the fruit of a collaboration between GRAME-CNCM and the ANIS (Arts Numériques et Immersions Sensorielles) research group from GIPSA-Lab (Université Grenoble Alpes).

This library implements basic 1-DoF mass-interaction physics algorithms, allowing to declare and connect physical elements (masses, springs, non linear interactions, etc.) together to form topological networks. Models can be assembled by hand, however in more complex scenarios it is recommended to use a scripting tool (such as MIMS) to generate the FAUST signal routing for a given physical network.

Sources

The core mass-interaction algorithms implemented in this library are in the public domain and are disclosed in the following scientific publications:

  • Claude Cadoz, Annie Luciani, Jean-Loup Florens, Curtis Roads and Françoise Chabade. Responsive Input Devices and Sound Synthesis by Stimulation of Instrumental Mechanisms: The Cordis System. Computer Music Journal, Vol 8. No. 3, 1984.
  • Claude Cadoz, Annie Luciani and Jean Loup Florens. CORDIS-ANIMA: A Modeling and Simulation System for Sound and Image Synthesis: The General Formalism. Computer Music Journal. Vol. 17, No. 1, 1993.
  • Alexandros Kontogeorgakopoulos and Claude Cadoz. Cordis Anima Physical Modeling and Simulation System Analysis. In Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conference (SMC-07), Lefkada, Greece, 2007.
  • Nicolas Castagne, Claude Cadoz, Ali Allaoui and Olivier Tache. G3: Genesis Software Environment Update. In Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference (ICMC-09), Montreal, Canada, 2009.
  • Nicolas Castagné and Claude Cadoz. Genesis 3: Plate-forme pour la création musicale à l'aide des modèles physiques Cordis-Anima. In Proceedings of the Journée de l'Informatique Musicale, Grenoble, France, 2009.
  • Edgar Berdahl and Julius O. Smith. An Introduction to the Synth-A-Modeler Compiler: Modular and Open-Source Sound Synthesis using Physical Models. In Proceedings of the Linux Audio Conference (LAC-12), Stanford, USA, 2012.
  • James Leonard and Claude Cadoz. Physical Modelling Concepts for a Collection of Multisensory Virtual Musical Instruments. In Proceedings of the New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME-15) Conference, Baton Rouge, USA, 2015.

Utility Functions

These utility functions are used to help certain operations (e.g. define initial positions and velocities for physical elements).


(mi.)initState

Used to set initial delayed position values that must be initialised at step 0 of the physics simulation.

If you develop any of your own modules, you will need to use this (see mass and springDamper algorithm codes for examples).

Usage

x: initState(x0) : _

Where:

  • x: position value signal
  • x0: initial value for position

Mass Algorithms

All mass-type physical element functions are declared here. They all expect to receive a force input signal and produce a position signal. All physical parameters are expressed in sample-rate dependant values.


(mi.)mass

Implementation of a punctual mass element. Takes an input force and produces output position.

Usage

mass(m, grav, x0, xr0),_ : _

Where:

  • m: mass value
  • grav: gravity force value
  • x0: initial position
  • xr0: initial delayed position (inferred from initial velocity)

(mi.)oscil

Implementation of a simple linear harmonic oscillator. Takes an input force and produces output position.

Usage

oscil(m, k, z, grav, x0, xr0),_ : _

Where:

  • m: mass value
  • k: stiffness value
  • z: damping value
  • grav: gravity force value
  • x0: initial position
  • xr0: initial delayed position (inferred from initial velocity)

(mi.)ground

Implementation of a fixed point element. The position output produced by this module never changes, however it still expects a force input signal (for compliance with connection rules).

Usage

ground(x0),_ : _

Where:

  • x0: initial position

(mi.)posInput

Implementation of a position input module (driven by an outside signal). Takes two signal inputs: incoming force (which doesn't affect position) and the driving position signal.

Usage

posInput(x0),_,_ : _

Where:

  • x0: initial position

Interaction Algorithms

All interaction-type physical element functions are declared here. They each expect to receive two position signals (coming from the two mass-elements that they connect) and produce two equal and opposite force signals that must be routed back to the mass elements' inputs. All physical parameters are expressed in sample-rate dependant values.


(mi.)spring

Implementation of a linear elastic spring interaction.

Usage

spring(k, x1r, x2r),_,_ : _,_

Where:

  • k: stiffness value
  • x1r: initial delayed position of mass 1 (unused here)
  • x2r: initial delayed position of mass 2 (unused here)

(mi.)damper

Implementation of a linear damper interaction. Beware: in 32bit precision mode, damping forces can become truncated if position values are not centered around zero!

Usage

damper(z, x1r, x2r),_,_ : _,_

Where:

  • z: damping value
  • x1r: initial delayed position of mass 1
  • x2r: initial delayed position of mass 2

(mi.)springDamper

Implementation of a linear viscoelastic spring-damper interaction (a combination of the spring and damper modules).

Usage

springDamper(k, z, x1r, x2r),_,_ : _,_

Where:

  • k: stiffness value
  • z: damping value
  • x1r: initial delayed position of mass 1
  • x2r: initial delayed position of mass 2

(mi.)nlSpringDamper2

Implementation of a non-linear viscoelastic spring-damper interaction containing a quadratic term (function of squared distance). Beware: at high displacements, this interaction will break numerical stability conditions ! The nlSpringDamperClipped is a safer option.

Usage

nlSpringDamper2(k, q, z, x1r, x2r),_,_ : _,_

Where:

  • k: linear stiffness value
  • q: quadratic stiffness value
  • z: damping value
  • x1r: initial delayed position of mass 1
  • x2r: initial delayed position of mass 2

(mi.)nlSpringDamper3

Implementation of a non-linear viscoelastic spring-damper interaction containing a cubic term (function of distance^3). Beware: at high displacements, this interaction will break numerical stability conditions ! The nlSpringDamperClipped is a safer option.

Usage

nlSpringDamper3(k, q, z, x1r, x2r),_,_ : _,_

Where:

  • k: linear stiffness value
  • q: cubic stiffness value
  • z: damping value
  • x1r: initial delayed position of mass 1
  • x2r: initial delayed position of mass 2

(mi.)nlSpringDamperClipped

Implementation of a non-linear viscoelastic spring-damper interaction containing a cubic term (function of distance^3), bound by an upper linear stiffness (hard-clipping).

This bounding means that when faced with strong displacements, the interaction profile will "clip" at a given point and never produce forces higher than the bounding equivalent linear spring, stopping models from becoming unstable.

So far the interaction clips "hard" (with no soft-knee spline interpolation, etc.)

Usage

nlSpringDamperClipped(s, c, k, z, x1r, x2r),_,_ : _,_

Where:

  • s: linear stiffness value
  • c: cubic stiffness value
  • k: upper-bound linear stiffness value
  • z: (linear) damping value
  • x1r: initial delayed position of mass 1
  • x2r: initial delayed position of mass 2

(mi.)nlPluck

Implementation of a piecewise linear plucking interaction. The symmetric function provides a repulsive viscoelastic interaction upon contact, until a tipping point is reached (when the plucking occurs). The tipping point depends both on the stiffness and the distance scaling of the interaction.

Usage

nlPluck(knl, scale, z, x1r, x2r),_,_ : _,_

Where:

  • knl: stiffness scaling parameter (vertical stretch of the NL function)
  • scale: distance scaling parameter (horizontal stretch of the NL function)
  • z: (linear) damping value
  • x1r: initial delayed position of mass 1
  • x2r: initial delayed position of mass 2

(mi.)nlBow

Implementation of a non-linear friction based interaction that allows for stick-slip bowing behaviour. Two versions are proposed : a piecewise linear function (very similar to the nlPluck) or a mathematical approximation (see Stefan Bilbao's book, Numerical Sound Synthesis).

Usage

nlBow(znl, scale, type, x1r, x2r),_,_ : _,_

Where:

  • znl: friction scaling parameter (vertical stretch of the NL function)
  • scale: velocity scaling parameter (horizontal stretch of the NL function)
  • type: interaction profile (0 = piecewise linear, 1 = smooth function)
  • x1r: initial delayed position of mass 1
  • x2r: initial delayed position of mass 2

(mi.)collision

Implementation of a collision interaction, producing linear visco-elastic repulsion forces when two mass elements are interpenetrating.

Usage

collision(k, z, thres, x1r, x2r),_,_ : _,_

Where:

  • k: collision stiffness parameter
  • z: collision damping parameter
  • thres: threshold distance for the contact between elements
  • x1r: initial delayed position of mass 1
  • x2r: initial delayed position of mass 2

(mi.)nlCollisionClipped

Implementation of a collision interaction, producing non-linear visco-elastic repulsion forces when two mass elements are interpenetrating. Bound by an upper stiffness value to maintain stability. This interaction is particularly useful for more realistic contact dynamics (greater difference in velocity provides sharper contacts, and reciprocally).

Usage

nlCollisionClipped(s, c, k, z, thres, x1r, x2r),_,_ : _,_

Where:

  • s: collision linear stiffness parameter
  • c: collision cubic stiffness parameter
  • k: collision upper-bounding stiffness parameter
  • z: collision damping parameter
  • thres: threshold distance for the contact between elements
  • x1r: initial delayed position of mass 1
  • x2r: initial delayed position of mass 2